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写作专题十九 英语的思维方式

2012-07-30 12:07:46
分类:教你写作

英语的思维方式

一.中英逻辑思维方式差异

逻辑思维方式的差异影响句子的质量,汉语重视时间,英文重视逻辑。采用英语的逻辑思维方式,更加像原汁原味的英文。

中英逻辑思维方式的具体差异

 

汉语思维方式

英语思维方式

先原因后结果

先结果后原因

先叙事后表态

先表态后叙事

先分后总(先论据后结论)

先总后分(先结论后论据)

主体思维重人称、外在特点

客体思维重事物、内在特点

男性为尊

女士优先

先东西后南北

先南北后东西

从大到小排列

从小到大排列

我们知道,中英思维方式对于语言表达有很大影响,现在把两者之间的差异总结如下。请看以下的例子:

例子1

(1) Because I made progress in English, the teacher praised me. (思维方式:因果)

(2) The teacher praised me for my progress in English.         (思维方式:果因)

例子2

(1) As soon as the bell rang, the students ran out of the classrooms, and ran down to the playground to do morning exercise.                  (思维方式:多动词连动)

(2) The bell for the class sent the students out of the classrooms down onto the playground for morning exercise.                     (思维方式:介词连动)

例子3

(1) If you want me to finish the task in such a short time, I think it is impossible for me to do.                                   (思维方式:先叙事,后表态)

(2) It is impossible for me to finish the task in such a short time.

                                          (思维方式:先表态,后叙事)

 

二.思维方式决定句子的质量

       看看这个例子, 请翻译句子:

出了城,我花钱雇了一头小毛驴,在驴背上骑了3天,来到河边的一家小旅馆里住了两晚。

如果我们同样以时间为次序组织语言,英文可以表达为:

1. I went out of the town, and hired a little donkey. I rode on the animal for 3 days and came to a small inn by the river side. I stayed in it for 2 nights.

但是如果我们以逻辑组织语言,英文可以表达为:

2. Out of the town, after I spent 3 days on the donkey that I had hired, I came to a small inn by the river side, where I stayed for 2 nights.

我们进一步看下面几句:

3. Out of the town on a hired donkey for 3 days, I finally stopped for a two-night stay in a small inn by the river.

4. Out of the town on a hired donkey for 3 days, I stayed in a small inn by the river for 2 nights.

5. Out of the town, I spent 3 days on a hired donkeywith a two-night rest in a small inn by the river.

这三个简单句的表现力超过了前面的句子。复合句优胜于简单句的结论不总是成立,句子的复杂度不是决定句子质量的核心因素。

 

 

三.练习: 尝试使用表1所叙述的思维方式来翻译下面的句子,体会表达效果的不同。

1. 因为没能阻止这样一场激烈的打斗,这位警察受到了责备。(逻辑要求:先结果后原因)

2. 这个小男孩愿意和弟弟分享他的玩具,所以收到了父母的鼓励。(逻辑要求:先结果后原因)

3. 不做充分的调查就作出匆忙的结论,这是不对的。(逻辑要求:先表态后叙事)

4. 在这么短的时间完成这么困难的任务,在我看来是不合情理的。(逻辑要求:先表态后叙事)

5. 从欧洲意大利的威尼斯来到亚洲的中国北京,在过去要花商人好几年的时间。(逻辑要求:从小到大排列)

6. 重新复习我们已经学过的东西,我们并不认为是浪费时间。(逻辑要求:先表态后叙事)

 

7. At school John was not a popular student, ______________________(做作业太懒惰了). With the exam coming, he _________________________________________(复习他已经学过的课,已经太迟了。逻辑要求:先表态后叙事). However, he had an idea. He began to write the answers on the inside of the jacket so that he could read them secretly when no one saw him. Luckily, he passed the exam without being discovered. He _________________________________________(他的老师对他的进步非常满意,让他当着全班的面谈谈他是怎么学的)(逻辑要求:先结果后原因). Now he was try to think of his great learning experience!

 

 

 

练习答案: 尝试使用表1所叙述的思维方式来翻译下面的句子,体会表达效果的不同。

1. The policeman was blamed for his inability to stop such a violent fight.

2. The little boy was encouraged by his parents for his willingness to share his toys with his younger brother.

3. It is not right to draw a haste conclusion without doing a complete survey.

4. It seemed unreasonable to me to finish such a difficult task in such a short time.

5. It used to take the businessmen quite a few years to travel from Venice, Italy of Europe to BeijingChina of Asia.

6. We do not think it a waste of time for us to review once again what we have learned.

7. At school John was not a popular student, who was too lazy with his homework. With the exam coming, he believed it too late to study lessons he had never learned. However, he had an idea. He began to write the answers on the inside of the jacket so that he could read them secretly when no one saw him. Luckily, he passed the exam without being discovered. He was asked by his teacher, who was so pleased with his progress, to talk about how he learned before the class. Now he was try to think of his great learning experience!

 

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