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写作专题十三 并列句与复合句的法则

2012-07-30 12:07:06
分类:教你写作

并列句与复合句的法则

一.并列句与复合句的法则: M-1= 引导词数目

具有两套或以上主谓系统,两套主谓系统用并列连词“and, or, but, so”中的任何一个连接叫做并列句。两套主谓系统用引导词例如“when, that, what, how, where”等等中的任何一个连接叫做复合句。

并列句与复合句必须符合M-1= 引导词数目的标准。也就是说,主谓系统的数目减去一等于连接词的数目,连接词包括并列连词与引导词。下面的例句中,主谓系统划线,非谓语斜体。

 

并列句

       1. Caught in rain yesterday, he is ill toady, but he has gone to school. (两套主谓系统用but进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

       2. He has no choice but to finish all his homework today, or it will be too late. (两套主谓系统用or进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

       3. Walking alone along the river bank, I came into Peter, and he took me to his home. (两套主谓系统用and进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

 

复合句

1. Because he was caught in rain yesterday, he is ill toady, but he has gone to school. (三套主谓系统用Becausebut进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

       2. When I was walking alone along the river bank, I came into Peter, who took me to his home. (三套主谓系统用Whenwho进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

       3. Helped by his teacher, he made great progress in English, which he had been very much afraid of. (两套主谓系统用which 进行连接,符合“M-1= 连接词数目”的标准)

       注意:非谓语形式不属于主谓系统,所以它的数目与连接词的数目没有函数关系。例句3具有的非谓语形式 Helped,不会使例句3增减任何连接词。

 

二.M-1= 引导词数目的检测作用

       符合“M-1= 引导词数目”规则的句子都是正确的句子,违反之的句子都是错误的句子。例如,

1. Because no one can live in a city with only one pound a day, so he had to ask his friends for help.

2. I did not want to go out on such a cold day, but he insisted, I had to.

句子1含有两套主谓系统(划线部分),应该只有一个引导词,所以becauseso只能保留一个。

句子2含有3套主谓系统(划线部分),应该有2个引导词,所以but的后面应该加because才正确。句子可以表述为:

I did not want to go out on such a cold day, but because he insisted, I had to.或者,

I did not want to go out on such a cold day, but I had to because he insisted.

       只要掌握公式,无论从句怎样移动,我们都能够应付自如。

 

三:配套练习:填上适当的引导词:

1. It is almost five years _____ we saw each other last time.

2. Don’t leave the sharp knife _____ our little Jane can get it.

3. Several weeks had gone by _____ I realized the painting was missing.

4. Parents should take seriously their children’s requests for sun  glasses _____ eye protection is necessary in sunny weather. 

5. _____ modeling business is by no means easy to get into, the good model will always be in demand.

6. I want to know ______ the thief was caught on the spot. 

7. Our club is open to adults only. It seems ______ your children have entered without permission. 

8. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ______ I disagree.

9. The road is covered with snow. 1 can’t understand ______ they insist on going by motorbike.

10. A modern city has been set up in _____ was a wasteland ten years ago.

11. Do you still remember the chicken farm ______  we visited three months ago?

12. There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands.

13. George Orwell______ real name was Eric Arthur wrote many political novels and essays.

14. _______ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. 

15. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ______ for the first time in years their team won the World Cup.

 

配套练习答案:填上适当的引导词:

1. 解释:这是时间状语从句的一个习惯的时态搭配,我们用since表示持续的时间,自从上次以来,已经5年没见了

2. 解释:这是地点状语从句,用where表示地点,意思是别把锋利的刀放在Jane够得着的地方

3. 解释:这是时间状语从句,用before 表示…”,意思是过了几周我才意识到…”

4. 解释:这是原因时间状语从句,用because表示,意思是因为可以保护眼睛…”

5. 解释:这是让步状语从句,用While或者Though表示虽然的意思。

6. 解释:应该用whether,意思是, “是否被当场抓住了

7. 解释:从句内部的结构完整,应该用that,它不充当任何成分,只是起到连接作用。

8. 解释:从句内部的结构不完整,应该用where 补充,意思是这就是我们有分歧的地方

9. 解释:从句内部的结构不完整,应该用why 补充,意思是这就是为什么他们坚持骑摩托车去的原因

10. 解释:从句内部的结构不完整,应该用what 补充,充当从句主语,意思是10年前曾经是荒原的地方。

11. 解释:应该用that /which,在从句中充当宾语。

12. 解释:应该用where,在从句中充当地点状语,可以还原为“she had wiped her hands on the trousers”,其中on the trousers就是地点状语“on which”,等于where

13. 解释:应该用whose,在从句中充当定语,代替所有格George Orwell’s,可以还原为“George Orwell’s real name was Eric Arthur”,其中所有格George Orwell’s 就是whose

14. 解释:应该用As,在从句中充当主语,修饰后面整个句子。定语从句前置只能够使用as来引导。

15. 解释:应该用when,在从句中充当时间状语,修饰this year,可以还原为“in this year for the first time in years their team won the World Cup”, 其中in this year 就是时间in which,等于when

 

 

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