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写作专题十六 定语从句常用句型介绍

2012-07-30 12:07:36
分类:教你写作

定语从句常用句型介绍

一.基本概念

定语从句功能相当于修饰名词的形容词,又叫形容词性从句。运用的时候容易和名词性从句互相混淆。结构是 句子 + 引导词 + 句子 ,关键是要抓对引导词。列表如下:

 

连接词

在从句内部的成分特征

例句

who

代人,充当主语

He is the man who helped us.

whom

代人,充当宾语

He is the man whom I helped.

that

代人、物,充当主语、宾语、表语

It is the tallest building that I have seen.

It was the first house that was built.

She is not the one that she was.

which

代物,充当主语、宾语

This is the house in which he lives.

I won the match, which pleased my class.

whose

代所有格,充当定语

He refused the book whose cover was broken.

as

代人、物,充当主语、宾语、表语

He is such a man as likes to help.

It isn’t the same book as you saw just now.

I have as many books as he has.

He left earlier, as we know.

when

代时间,充当时间状语

It happened in the year when I was born.

where

代地点,充当地点状语

It happened in the house where I was born.

why

代原因,充当原因状语

He told him the reason why she was late.

 

注意下面一些小规则:

1. 先行词词组含有序数词、最高级、不定代词的时候,它后面的定语从句引导词一般使用that, 而不是which,例句在上面的表格。

2. 先行词as在搭配的状态下使用,包括such…as, the same …as, as many/much…as, 例句在上面的表格。

 

3. aswhich的区别

He left earlier, as we know.         (带出已经知道的旧内容)

He left earlier, which surprised us.    (带出没有人知道的新内容)

 

4. that what的区别

 

项目

that的成分

what的成分

定语从句

主语、宾语、表语

不存在

He is the man that is ill. 主语

He is the man that I helped. 宾语

He is not the man that he was. 表语

不存在

名词性从句

存在,但不充当任何成分

主语、宾语、表语

I know that he will come.

That he died is true.

My idea is that you must come.

I knew the fact that she had come.

I know what you mean. 宾语

I know what was said.  主语

I know what he was.  表语

 

 

二.定语从句在高考写作中的运用

       在过去三年广东高考(2007-2009年),定语从句在读写任务中有广泛应用。我们首先翻译以下句子,它们都是历年广东考生的优秀之作:

1.       数据表明,父母的重要性在女孩心中位居第二。(非限制性定语从句)

2.       你把我保护在你的羽翼(wing)之下,给我最好吃的,给了我你能够提供的最温暖的庇护(shelter)。(限制性定语从句)

3.       大学生活是艰苦的,因为我们得拼尽全力(do our utmost)为高考,高考很大程度上(to a large extent)决定了我们的未来(非限制性定语从句)

4.       理想中(ideal)的大学生活是一种我们能够从学习中找到快乐的生活。(限制性定语从句)

5.       与动物照相对它们有坏的影响,这行为打扰它们的休息。(非限制性定语从句)

6.       他工作的地方离市中心很远。

7.       那个生产手机的工厂建于1998年。

8.       那位她照顾了十年的老人上个月去世了。

9.       他考试不及格,这使他十分沮丧。

10.   那座正在建设的大楼是给孤寡老人住的。

 

 

参考答案:

1.       As the data show, parents ranks the second for the girls.

2.       You protected me under your wing by giving me the best food and the warmest shelter that you could afford.

3.       College life is hard because we have to do our utmost for the college entrance exam, which will determine, to a large extent, our future.

4.       An ideal college life should be one in which we can study for joy.

5.       Taking pictures with animals has a bad effect on the animals, which greatly disturb their rest.

6.       The place where he works is far away from the city centre.

7.       The factory that turns out cell phones was built up in 1998.

8.       The old man whom she had looked after for ten years died last month.

9.       He failed the examination, which upset him a lot.

10.   The building that is being set up is intended for the old people who have no children.

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