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写作专题二十一 表达的简练

2012-07-30 13:07:56
分类:教你写作

表达的简练

 

一.英文句子的弹性

英文句子具有很大的弹性,加上定语与状语可以很长,删减定语与状语可以非常简短。主要成分缺少了句子语法不成立,次要成分缺少了句子语法成立,但是信息量不够丰富。例如,我们可以拓展句子,进行准确生动的描述:

 

SVO

基干句

We held a discussion.

加定语

We held a heated discussion.

加状语

Last week we held a heated discussion among the teachers and students of our school on the topic of the importance of good manners at school.

上周我们在师生中进行了一次热烈的讨论,话题谈及了在学校良好礼貌的重要性。

同时可以压缩句子,例如,

Immediately, realizing the seriousness of the whole incident, he moved to a ground floor room with a small waiting-room to look into the matter himself, leaving his second-in-command(副手)to take over all other cases.

压缩句子剩下基干结构:

He moved to a ground floor room. 他搬到一楼的小型等候室。

      

二.语言的经济原则

一般来说,我们要追求简练的表达,这就是语言的经济原则,用尽量的少的文字传达更多的信息量,例如:下列各句。

·What I am trying to say is that in my opinion he has not done his work very well and it needs improving. ⒅⒅⒅

·It is difficult to make an estimation of how much money it would cost.

上述两句话虽然显得很长,但是十分罗嗦,词语堆砌。句子越长,读者越难以准确捕捉句子的主要意义。建议改为:

·In my opinion his work needs improving.

·It is difficult to estimate its cost.

 

 

三. 运用经济原则简化下面的啰嗦说法:

1. He is not only a good pianist, but also a good singer as well.

2. There are so many inexperienced unskilled workers without training in a particular job that production of the factory has been affected.

3. The time for learning is the time of youth.

4. I think the time has come for us to leave.

5. We find the situation that exists at the moment intolerable.

6. The process was performed in two steps. The first of these consisted of drying the sample, and the second consisted of weighing it.

7. It is blue in color, round in shape and small in size.

8. As we walked in the direction of home, I felt as if I had never been happier.

9. After the conference concluded, the committee members met to discuss how to put the plan into action.

10. In my opinion, I think your plan is too hard to carry out.

11. There was a pine tree that stood like a giant on the top of the mountain. It towered into the clouds.

12. During the three years when I was studying at college, I witnessed many persecutions of black students by white racists.

 

 

答案:三. 运用经济原则简化下面的啰嗦说法:

1. He is not only a good pianist, but also a good singer.

2. There are so many inexperienced workers that production of the factory has been affected.

3. Youth is the time for learning.

4. I think it is time to leave.

5. We find the existing situation intolerable.

6. The process was performed in two steps: drying the sample and weighing it.

7. It is blue, round and small.

8. As we walked home, I felt as if I had never been happier.

9. After the conference, the committee members met to discuss how to put the plan into action.

10. In my opinion, your plan is too hard to carry out.

11. On the top of the mountain, a giant pine tree towered into the clouds.

12. During the three years at college, I witnessed many persecutions of black students by white racists.

 

 

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