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写作专题二十二 句子美化技术1:同位语

2012-07-30 13:07:28
分类:教你写作

句子美化技术1:同位语

       同位语表示与前面的名词处于同一关系,在语法上是名词+名词结构,在意义上,后一个名词解释前一个名词。例如,在句子我们的语文老师,陈老师,教书非常出色中,划线部分就是同位语。英文“Mr. Chen, our teacher of Chinese, teaches us excellently”,划线部分就是同位语。中英思维方式有差异,所以位置有所不同。

 

一.  学会使用同位语的多种表达技巧

我们认真的观察下面同位语与它所修饰的名词之间的关系:

技巧1

I am looking forward to visiting Beijing,  a city   with many famous places of interest.

小概念   大概念         其他修饰成分

技巧2

I am looking to visiting Beijing, capital of china.

                 被修饰词  表示特征的名词短语

He paid a visit to Mr. Bush, president of the United States of America.

              被修饰词        表示身份的名词短语

Mr. Bush saw a pair of little pandas in the zoo, a kind of animal only alive in China.

被修饰词               补充意义的名词短语

 

 

二. 定语从句与同位语的转化。

1 China, which is a country with a long history of 5000 years, is now developing very fast. (定语从句)

改为:China, a country with a long history of 5000 years, is now developing very fast.

 

2 Finally, Su Dongpo, who was a great poet, arrived in Huizhou, which was then a city famous for its beautiful lakes.

改为:Finally, Su Dongpo, a great poet, arrived in Huizhou, then a city famous for its beautiful lakes.

 

3 Egypt, which is a country with a long history of 5000 years, attracts many tourists from all over the world. (定语从句)

改为:Egypt, a country with a long history of 5000 years, attracts many tourists from all over the world.

 

4Finally, Li Bai, who was a great poet, arrived in Xi’an, which was then the capital of the Tang Dynasty and also an international city.

改为:Finally, Li Bai, a great poet, arrived in Xi’an, then the capital of the Tang Dynasty and also an international city.

 

练习三. 运用同位语的方法进行翻译

1 Marty Fielding患有一种特殊的肌肉疾病,行动笨拙,经常碰到家具上。

Marty Fielding, _______________________________, moves very clumsily and keeps bumping into furniture.

 

2. 我渴望去北京,一个拥有4000年历史的城市。

I am eager to go to Beijing, _______________________________.

 

3. 昨天,我去拜访了John, 一个乐于帮助别人的人。

Yesterday I visited John, _______________________________.

 

4. Larry是机器人公司的工程师,送妻子一台名叫Tony机器人做家务,以检测它的性能。

Larry, _______________________________, gave a robot called Tony to his wife Claire, who tested out the machine.

 

5.第二天早上,我把一个内壁和外壁装有果冻的,冰冻过的碗罩在蛇窝上方。

The next morning, I placed the frozen bowl, _______________________________.

 

 

练习四. 运用同位语的方法合并句子

例题:

Most students cannot wait until semester break.

Semester break is a time to relax and forget about deadlines and exams.

合并为:

Most students cannot wait until semester break, a time to relax and forget about deadlines and exams.

 

 

The ski trip

1 Sammy found herself bored on her winter break from school.

   Sammy was a short, red-haired drama major.

 

2 So Sammy called her friend Rhoda.

   Rhoda was a tall, brown-haired physics major.

 

3 Finally, Sammy and Rhoda decided to go on a ski trip.

   The trip was a fun, fantastic, fantasy escape.

4 First, they made reservations at the Big Bear Hut.

   The Hut was a ski lodge in Bear Valley.

 

5 Then, Sammy and Rhoda rented their supplies.

   The supplies were skis by Rossignol and boots by Fischer.

 

练习五. 运用同位语的方法合并句子

例题:

Most people enjoy music.

The people are those of any age.

Music is a kind of medicine for the soul.

合并为:

Most people, those of any age, enjoy music, a kind of medicine for the soul.

 

1. Heavy metal is supposed to attract crowds of long-haired, maladjusted teens.

    Heavy metal is music with loud electric guitars and drums.

    The maladjusted teens are young people who rebel against their parents.

  

2. But my Uncle Walter enjoys listening to Heavy Metal.

    Uncle Walter is a 40-year-old, bald accountant.

    His Heavy Metal is usually some song by Arrows and Petunias.

 

3. On the other hand, modern rock is supposed to attract hordes of modern teenagers.

    Modern rock is music featuring vocals and acoustics.

    The teenagers are boys who are addicted to MTV and girls who dream of dating the lead singers.

 

4 But my Aunt Wilma listens to modern rock.

   Aunt Wilma is a 50-year-old housewife.

   Modern rock is any new release by D-Fresch Load.

 

5. Soft music is supposed to attract people like Walter and Wilma.

    Soft rock is background music often played in elevators.

   Walter and Wilma are people who wear polyester suits.

 

 

练习答案:练习一. 运用同位语的方法进行翻译

1. a boy suffering from a kind of muscle disease

2. a city with a history of 4000 years.

3. a man always ready to help those in need.

4. an engineer for a robot company

5. the one with some jelly between its outside and inside walls.

 

 

练习二. 运用同位语的方法合并句子

The ski trip

1 Sammya short, red-haired drama majorfound herself bored on her winter break from school.

2 So Sammy called her friend Rhodaa tall, brown-haired physics major.

3 Finally, Sammy and Rhoda decided to go on a ski tripa fun, fantastic, fantasy escape.

4 First, they made reservations at the Big Bear Huta ski lodge in Bear Valley.

5 Then, Sammy and Rhoda rented their suppliesskis by Rossignol and boots by Fischer.

 

练习三. 运用同位语的方法合并句子

1. Heavy metal, music with loud electric guitars and drums, is supposed to attract crowds of long-haired, maladjusted teens, young people who rebel against their parents.

2. But my Uncle Walter, a 40-year-old, bald accountant, enjoys listening to Heavy Metal, usually some song by Arrows and Petunias.

3. On the other hand, modern rock, music featuring vocals and acoustics, is supposed to attract hordes of modern teenagers, boys who are addicted to MTV and girls who dream of dating the lead singers.

4. But my Aunt Wilma, a 50-year-old housewife, listens to modern rock, any new release by D-Fresch Load.

5. Soft music, background music often played in elevators, is supposed to attract people like Walter and Wilma, people who wear polyester suits.

 

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