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写作专题二十三 句子美化技术2:定语位置

2012-07-30 13:07:48
分类:教你写作

句子美化技术2:定语位置

一.定语的形态

修饰名词的成分叫定语。形容词、名词、介词短语、非谓语形式、定语从句等语言结构都可以充当定语。这里我们主要介绍最为普通的形容词与介词充当定语的现象。

1. 形容词充当定语

例题:

The doctor spoke to the patient.

The doctor was sympathetic.

The patient was overweight.

划线部分的doctor patient 同时可以用形容词进行修饰,一个单词充当定语时,该词放在名词前面,词组(两个以上单词)充当定语时,该词组放在名词后面。

答案合并为:

The sympathetic doctor spoke to the overweight patient.

 

2. 动词变形充当定语

Example:

The farmer ran from the bull.

The framer was frightened.

The bull was charging.

Solution:

The frightened farmer ran from the charging bull.

 

3. 介词充当定语

例题:

The dance club admits everyone.

The dance club is for teenagers.

Everyone is between 18 and 21.

合并为:

The dance for teenagers admits everyone between 18 and 21.

 

二. 定语的位置安排

通过巧妙地安排定语的位置,我们可以组合出各种各样的新意义。

       公式=短定语A+中心名词B+长定语C

说明:定语修饰名词的时候,一个单词的定语放前面,两个单词以上的定语放在后面,定语可以是:形容词,名词,介词,分词等等。那么,定语组合

  AB    短定语   a bigopen area

    BC    长定语     an area with some sports facilities

    ABC型 定语齐备  a big open area with some sports facilities for people to do exercise

 

例子1  此外,还有健身场地健身器材

                      并列关系

Besides, there is a big open   area   with some sports facilities for people to do exercise.         并列定语   中心词                   斜体部分为后置定语

 

思路:并列关系拆解为多重修饰关系。由于area是中心词,短的定语“big open”放在名词前面,长的定语“with some sports facilities for people to do exercise”放在名词后面。

 

例子2经过了半个多世纪的伟大努力,一个贫穷落后,积贫积弱(weak)和被受屈辱的(humiliated)旧中国已经成为了一个独立(independent)自主(democratic)和初步繁荣(prosperity) 的新中国。

第一步:缩句子:一个旧中国成为了一个新中国。

An old China has become a new China.

第二步:在前面加短定语:

一个贫穷落后,积贫积弱和被受屈辱的旧中国已经成为了一个独立自主的新中国。

A weak, underdeveloped and humiliated old China has become an independent and democratic new China.

第三步:在后面加长定语:

A weak, underdeveloped and humiliated old China has become an independent and democratic new China on the early stage of prosperity.

第四步:加上剩下的部分:

After 50 years’ of unremitting efforts, a weak, underdeveloped and humiliated old China has become an independent and democratic new China on the early stage of prosperity.

    任何长句子,只要分解得当,都可以各个击破

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