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写作专题二十五 句子美化技术4:动词+介词

2012-07-30 13:07:52
分类:教你写作

句子美化技术4:动词+介词

一.动词词组具有灵活的替代功能

       英语动词词组一般由“动词+若干介词”构成,它能够体现英文最本质的特征,表达地道,具有最为灵活的替代功能,我们平时想不出来的大词、难词,其实可以用词组进行表达,效果比前者更好,更有英文味道。例如,

 

       原词

词组

perform

carry out

continue

go on with

participate

take part in

occupy

take up

例如, 我们要表达“国家成立了专门小组用以根除各种城市犯罪行为”这个句子,比较下面两个句子哪个更加方便:

       (1) The government established a special group to eradicate all kinds of city crimes.

(2) The government set up a special group to get rid of all kinds of city crimes.

 

 

. 具有英语的本质结构特征

动词词组最具有英文味道,使用动词词组基本上体现了英文内在的逻辑关系与表达手段,我们比较下面两段中文:

句子(1):

今年漫长的冬天刚了一半,我登上本宁山脉的顶峰,看见树木的影子长长地拖过了教堂,了磨坊,甚至覆盖了监狱。

句子(2):

在今年漫长的冬天中期,在本宁山脉的顶峰,我看见树木的影子长长地拖过了教堂,过了磨坊,甚至覆盖了监狱。

       我们发现,句子(1)更加具有汉语的本质特征,因为它动词多,而且丰富,用动词引导读者。相反,句子(2)似乎从英语直接翻译过来,很像欧化汉语,不太像中文的表达特征。我们看英文原文:

In the middle of this long winter, on top of the Mount Benning, I saw the shadows of the trees across the church, across the mill and even across the prison. (名词,介词丰富)

        简单地说,中文动词多,英文动词少。这种表达方式的优点是:文字简练,信息量大,适合表达连贯、连动的一系列动作和过程,而且,因为动词使用较少,采用英语的逻辑思维方式,更加像原汁原味的英文。

 

三.动词词组在篇章中的应用

       以下这篇文章是用“动词+介词”的形式改写2005年广东省高考书面表达的答案,同学们注意动词词组的应用。

Once upon a time there was a farmer on a farmer. He worked in the fields every day. One day, he was ploughing hard in the fields. Suddenly he heard a noise from behind. He looked round and found a hare lying by the trump. The poor creature had bumped into the tree and died at once. He was happy to get a free hare without hard work. He said to himself, “Maybe I do not have to work so hard. I can wait for another hare by the tree without doing anything. ” With this idea, he threw away his hoe on the ground, waiting for another free hare every day. Several months passed by. However, the “clever” farmer ended up having his fields deserted without a hare. He felt greatly regretted for his wrong decision.

       The story tells us that we have to pay before we succeed. We will get nothing without hard work.

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