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写作专题三十一 形式的连贯

2012-07-30 13:07:24
分类:教你写作

形式的连贯

使用转折词语进行过渡

转折词语的作用是使句子和句子、段落和段落之间更加衔接和连贯。常用的转折词语可以概括为以下四类。

. 使用代词

例子8

It is the most talked-of subject in our daily life. Everyone mentions it several times a day. You think about it at least once during every class. Its passage is steady. It touches everyone. What is it? It is time!

       In summer, Father had his usual two or three weeks of vacation. These were normally spent at our cabin in the mountains.

 

. 重复关键词

例子9

My first visit to the cinema was a very unhappy one. Some friends took me there when I was seven years old. At first there were bright lights and music and I left quite happy. When the lights went out, I felt afraid. Then the film started and I saw a train on the screen. The train was coming towards me. I shouted out in fear and got down under my seat. When my friend saw me, they started to laugh. I felt ashamed and sat back in my seat. I watched the film to the end nut I still felt afraid. I was glad when the film ended.

 

.使用同义词(包括:近义词)

Of all Jefferson’s many tablets, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer……his talent as an author was soon discovered.

      I first heard this tale in India……later someone told me that the story appeared in a magazine.

现以下面一段文章来说明上述三种转折语的用法:

例子10

In rock music there is a distinct and almost overwhelming beat.(2)No single beat is characteristic of the music today. (3) But each song has an easily recognizable rhythm.(4) As you listen to a song, your foot usually starts to pick up the beat. (5)Before long, your entire body seems to be moving with it. (6) Your head pounds with the beat, and there is no room for thought. (7) Only the surge of the music is important. (8) In its own way, rock music is as dominant as the Rock of Gibraltar.(9)Its message is an overpowering emotional one.

这是一段内容紧凑、条理清楚、连贯性很强的文章。作者使用了“重复关键词”,“同义词”,“代词”等形式,使全段意义自然而有机地连贯起来。第一句是全段的主题句,其中有一个关键词beat(节拍)。其后beat246,句中重复出现,在第37句中分别以rhythm surge这两个同义词和近义词出现,在第5句中则以代词it代替beat.

 

. 使用转折词。根据意义要求,使用不同的转折词,依其作用可分为以下十类:

 

表示举例

for example, for instance, for one thing, to illustrate, as an illustration, a case in point, namely, that is, incidentally.

表示增补意义

in addition, furthermore, moreover, besides, also, again, and, then, too, likewise, what’s more

表示强调

certainly, indeed, above all, of course, surely, anyway, in fact, as a matter of fact, in other words, in this case that is ( to say), in particular, naturally, obviously

表示对比或对照

in contrast, whereas, on the other hand, instead, while, in spite of, despite, on the contrary, although, but, however, still, yet, nevertheless, unlike, otherwise, conversely.

表示比较

like, likewise, similarly, in the same way, equally important, meanwhile, at the same time, even so, even though, not only……, but also…

表示让步

after all , clearly, although, it is true(that)

表示原因

because of this, because, for, for this reason, since, as, due to, owing to, thanks to

表示结果

therefore, as a result, consequently, accordingly, so, hence, thus, in this way, otherwise

表示次序

first, (second, third, etc.) in the first place, first of all, now, next, then, to begin(start) with, at first, at last, finally, eventually, in the end, lately, recently, immediately, temporarily, since then, soon, after a while, afterward, after, before, today,(tomorrow, yesterday,) above, across, against, around, behind, before, in front of , below, beneath, down, over, under, up, beyond, adjacent to, close to, near to, next to, opposite to, at the bottom,(of), in the middle (of), on the left(right), on the opposite side

表示结论

to sum up, to conclude, to summarize, in summary, in all, in a word, in short, in brief, in conclusion, so, therefore, thus, in any event, as has been noted(mentioned, stated)

以下是说明转折词作用的若干例子,从中可以看出,如果没有转折词,句子和句子之间的关系就不连贯,只有使用转折词后,句子的意义才变得明确和衔接

例子11:(I had a very bad cold. I went to school..

Though I had a very bad cold, I went to school.

I had a very bad cold, in spite of this, I went to school.

I had a very bad cold, however, I went to school.

例子12

(New York is a very expensive city, Rents are very high.)

New York is a very expensive city, for example, rents are very high.

例子13

(Mary is in love with John. John is in love with Jane.)

Mary is in love with John, but John is in love with Jane.

Mary is in love with John, however, John is in love with Jane.

综上所述,文章的连贯性主要体现在:(一)叙事次序应该合乎逻辑(时间、空间、程序、重要性等)自始至终层次清楚,顺理成章,使人读来没有杂乱无章之感;(二)有关的词、句、段可通过使用相应的转折语将意思连贯起来,使文章安排得更加紧凑和衔接,使人感到通顺可读,没有累赘或厌烦之感。

可以这样说, 如果一致性原则是要求作者突出段落的中心思想,从意义上体现文章的完整性,那么,连贯性原则就是要求作者注重语言和逻辑关系,从结构上句子或段落之间体现文章的完整性。

 

五.练习:将下列句子翻译成英语,注意形式上的连贯。

1)这孩子既健康又活泼。(as well as)

2)工作与游戏都是健康所不可缺少的。后者给我们以休息,前者给我们以精力。(the latter…, and the former…)

3)有些人喜欢踢足球,有些人喜欢打篮球。(some…others)

4)做任何事需全力以赴,半途而废(done by halves)则一事无成。

5)凡是遇到困难的人都可以请求同志们的帮助。

6)他不但有知识,而且有经验。(not only…but also)

7)电视不仅乏味,而且还浪费了许多时间。(not only…but also)

8)起初你将感到困难,但不久就会觉得容易。(at first…but)

9)我们有时去海滩,有时在院子里做日光浴。(Sometimes…at other times…

10)她不但是摄影师,还是个天才的音乐家。(as well as

 

 

六.填写连词、代词完成下列句子。

1A child is a responsibility both to        parents and to society.

2) They spare nothing, neither          labor,       wealth nor even         lives.

3) There was such a long line at the movie          we had to wait before we could get in.

4) A good book may be among the best of friends.      Is the same today that       always was, and         will never change.

5)           is television boring,          it (also) wastes a lot of time.

6)           people came by car, and           came on foot.

7) Between love and hate, I chose          but my husband chose         .

8) The cinema is showing           film          last week.

9) Her moods kept changing--              happy,           filled with despair.

10) I left it            on the table         in the drawer.

 

 

五.练习答案:将下列句子翻译成英语,注意形式上的连贯。

1)  The child is lively as well as healthy.

2)           Work and play are both necessary to health, the latter gives us rest, and the former gives us energy.

3)           Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.

4)           Do all that you do with your might. Things done by halves are never done right.

5)           A person who meets with difficulties may ask his comrades for help.

6)           He has not only knowledge, but also experience.

7)           Not only is television boring, but it (also) wastes a lot of time.

8)           At first you may find it hard, but it will soon become easy.

9)           Sometimes we went to the beach and at other times we sunbathed in the courtyard.

10)       She is a talented musician as well as a photographer.

 

 

六.练习答案:按照关联指代句型完成下列句子。

1)  its                   2) their, their, their             3) that

4)  It, it, it               5) Not only, but                6) Some, others

7) the former, the latter      8) the same, as                9) now, now

10) either, or 

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