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写作专题三十二 句首的连贯

2012-07-30 13:07:36
分类:教你写作

句首的连贯

句首的连贯是指文章句子的开头与连贯的关系,它被认为是被认为是深层次的连贯。这项分析技术注意句子的开头,研究主语(专业术语叫主位,姑且笼统称为“主语”)与连贯的关系,认为主语的推进直接影响篇章的质量,例如。

一.主语推进分析

1  平行推进方式(Parallel progression

(1) Chocolates are a national craving. (2) Records show that they are sold in huge quantities-11.2 pounds per capita per year. (3) Designer chocolates often sell for nearly $30 one pound. (4) It is obvious that these candies are America’s number one choice.

我们列出这篇文章的主语:

1.       Chocolate

2.       they

3.       Designer chocolate

4.       these candies

全部主语与“Chocolate”有关,如果在同一个段落,被认为是紧扣中心的好方式。

 

2.  顺序推进方式 Sequential progression

(1) Computer interviews are used by market researchers to assess product demand. (2) Using these, many different products are analyzed. (3) For example, people may be asked about detergents.

我们列出这篇文章的主语:

1.       Computer interviews

2.       Products

3.       detergents

全部主语在不断地变动,说明的对象不断变化。如果在不同的段落,被认为是论述不同的问题。

 

3. 综合式平行推进方式(Extended parallel progression

(1) Body language varies from culture to culture. (2) To say yes, Americans nod their heads up and down. (3) Japanese and Italians use the same nod to say no. (4) Body language is an important skill for international managers.

(5) Misunderstandings of body languages can cause us a lot of trouble. (6) Indians nod their heads to mean no, but shook their heads to mean yes. (7) People outside will get confused when they arrive in India. (8) Americans put their two fingers besides the ears to mean calling the phone, but (9) Mexicans means that the listener is crazy.

我们列出这篇文章的主语:

1.        Body language

2.        Americans

3.        Japanese and Italians

4.        Body language

 

5.  Misunderstandings

6.  Indians

7.  People

8.  Americans

9.  Mexicans

15主语在变动,说明的对象不断变化,属于顺序推进方式2-56-8主语都是围绕着同一个大概念“人”,各自论述相同的问题,属于平行推进方式。两种的总和就是综合式平行推进方式。

 

二.推进方式的应用

一篇好的文章,段落内部建议使用平行推进方式,段落之间是顺序推进方式。

 

基础写作

读写任务

平行推进方式

综合式平行推进方式

一个段落

多个段落

一般保持5个句子中全部或至少3个主语不变

同一个段落内部使用平行推进方式,新的段落有新的主题句,从而构成综合式平行推进方式。

 

三.推进方式的使用

       分析以下两个例子,我们可以知道主语怎样制约甚至决定连贯的实现。

例子1

A woman was crying loudly in the street. I rushed out of the house. I entered the street and found the women. She was laughing happily towards me. She cheated me! I felt I was very foolish.

例子2

Hearing a women’ cry, I rushed out of the house into the street, only to find her laughing happily toward me. I felt so foolish to be cheated.

 

例子1

例子2

主语woman---I---I---she---she

主语I---I

顺序推进方式

平行推进方式

松散、中心不突出

紧密、中心突出

连贯较差

连贯很好

 

四.配套练习:平行推进方式翻译以下一段话

阳朔静静地在漓江边上,人口(population) 30万,面积1428平方公里(km2),已经有1400年的历史了。它的山矗立在水上,好像电视里的图画,因此闻名于全世界。它的自然风光(natural beauty)包括青山、绿水、深洞(deep caves)和奇峰(strange peak)

 

 

配套练习答案:平行推进方式翻译以下一段话

Yangshuoa 1400-year-old small town with a small population of 300 thousand, lies quietly on the River Lijiang. This town covers an area of 1428 square kilometers. It is world famous for its mountains on the water, which look like beautiful pictures on TV. Its natural beauty includes green mountains, clear water, deep caves and strange peaks.

 

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