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语法突破-----句子结构与句子分析

2011-05-22 18:05:03
分类:语法突破

句子结构与句子分析

[真题再现]

[2009上海卷]翻译句子:

1.  网球运动在上海越来越流行了。(popular

2.  我认为你们的建议和他们的一样有价值。(as …as

3.  只喝一杯咖啡就会使我整晚睡不着觉。(keep

4.  为了纪念那些勇敢的消防战士,一部电影即将开拍。(memory

5.  过了三天她才想起把雨衣忘在语言实验室了。(remember

6.  尽管山高林密,医护人员还是迅速地赶到了出事地点,实施援救。(despite

参考答案

[真题再现]

1.       Tennis is getting more and more popular in Shanghai.

2.       I think your suggestion is as valuable as theirs.

3.       Drinking only a cup of coffee will keep me awake all night.

4.       A film will be made/shot in memory of these brave firefighters.

5.       It was three days later that she remembered leaving/having left her raincoat in the language lab.

6.       Despite the high mountains and thick forests, the doctors and nurses rushed to the scene of the accident for the rescue/to carry out the rescue.

 

[考点归纳]

1.  基本的句法知识有助于我们写出正确的句子和对句子结构进行有效的分析。句法主要讲句子的成分、种类和类型以及谴词造句的规律。

2.  句子成分可以分为主语、谓语、表语、宾语、补语、定语、状语、同位语八种。下表有助于我们区分各种句子成分,并建立句子成分和词类之间的关联。

 

句子成分

意义

例句

主语

主语是句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或事物,表示句子描述的是什么。主语通常由名词、代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词或主语从句等担任。

Smoking is harmful to health.

The aged are well taken care of in the village.

谓语

谓语说明主语的动作或状态。谓语通常由动词或动词短语担任。其位置在主语之后。

We should pay attention to English idioms.

表语

表语是在连系动词之后表示主语的性质、特征、状态或身份的部分。表语通常由名词、代词、形容词、副词、数词、介词短语以及动词不定式、动名词、分词或表语从句担任。

Andy seemed surprised at the news.

Her job is to look afer the wounded.

His father is a lawyer.

宾语

宾语表示及物动词的对象和内容。介词后面的名词或代词叫做介词宾语。宾语通常由名词、代词、数词或与之相当的结构担任,其位置在及物动词或介词之后。

We help each other and learn from each other.

I don’t know where she has gone.

He kept in touch with her while he was overseas.

补语

补语用于补充说明主语或宾语。补语通常由形容词、名词、动词不定式、现在分词、介词短语等担任。补语可分为宾语补足语和主语补足语。

The doctor advised her to stay in bed for a week.

You should put your books in order.

Gary was found working in the office.

定语

定语用于限定或修饰名词或代词,通常由形容词或与之相当的结构担任。单词作定语通常放在被修饰语的前面,短语或从句作定语则放在被修饰语的后面。

The are women pilots.

The girl playing the violin is a fresher.

Those who want to go may go.

I have something important to tell you.

状语

状语用于修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。状语通常由副词或与之相当的结构担任。修饰形容词或副词的状语放在被修饰与之前;修饰动词的状语有的放在动词之前,有的放在动词之后。若动词有宾语通常放在宾语之后。

Fred is leaving for Beijing the day after tomorrow.

He went to London to learn English.

She speaks French quite well.

Having lived in Shanghai for many years, he knew the city very well.

同位语

同位语位于名词、代词或名词性短语之后,说明其内容。同位语通常由名词、代词或名词性短语或从句担任。

The future belongs to you young people.

They each have a dictionary.

3.  按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

4.  按照句子的结构划分,句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。下表有助于我们掌握句子结构:

 

句子

结构

定义

例句

注意事项

只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语动词(或并列谓语动词)。

Life is a box of chocalate.

The moon rose slowly.

He is watching a film named Avatar.

Father bought him a new bike.

I heard her singing in the hall.

由于所用的主要谓语动词不同(连系动词、及物动词和不及物动词),就产生了五种基本结构,即主谓、主谓宾、主谓双宾、主谓复合宾语、主系表。

包括两个或两个以上并列而又相互独立的简单句。其结构为简单句+连词+简单句或中间由连接。

Jackson not only writes his own plays,he also acts in them.

You must go to work, or you will lose your job.

Martial arts films are often enjoyable, but they are seldom great art.

You’d better put on your sweater, for it’s rather cold outside.

常见的并列连词有:

表示并列关系:andnot only …but also

表示转折关系:butyetwhilewhereas

表示选择关系:or

表示因果关系:forso

由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。

If you follow the suggestions above, you will look and feel much better in no time at all!

You must do everything as I do.

He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.

Whoever leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.

由从属连词、连接代词、连接副词、关系代词、关系副词引导的各类从句。包括名词性从句、定语从句、状语从句。

 

5.  句子分析的基本方法和技巧:做阅读理解题我们需要对长难句进行结构分析,以便正确理解句子的意义;做语法填空题我们也需要对句子进行结构分析,以便确定空格处所缺的成分。对阅读理解中的长难句,我们可以通过找连词的方法,迅速判断出句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句,进而弄清楚句子中的修饰关系,确定句子的主干成分,这样句子的意义就一目了然了。对于语法填空中的句子(有时候需要填连词),我们建议采用找谓语动词的方法来进行结构分析。如果句子中只有一个谓语动词,那么这个句子就是简单句,我们可以根据简单句的五种基本结构迅速确定空格中所缺的成分;如果句子中有两个或两个以上的谓语动词,那么这个句子要么是并列句要么是复合句,我们可以根据前后两个简单句之间的意义关系,迅速判断该用什么连词。连词的数量q与谓语动词的数量n之间关系可以用代数式“q=n-1”来表达。

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