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[英语语法] 介词
作者:佚名 文章来源:英语学习网  更新时间:2008-5-4 16:06:53

一、介词的分类
1.介词不能单独作句子的成分,而是用来表示名词或代词等和句中其他词之间的关系,通常放在名词或代词之前,构成介词短语。根据结构,介词主要分成四种:
1)简单介词:about, across, after, against, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beside, but, by, down, during, for, from, in, of, on, over, near, round, since, to, under, up, with等等。
2)合成介词:inside, into, outside, throughout, upon, without, within
3)短语介词:according to, along with, apart from, because of, in front of, in spite of, instead of, owing to, up to, with reguard to
4)分词介词:considering, reguarding, including, concerning
2.从意思上考虑,介词可分为下面三类:
1)引导时间短语的介词:
at, on, in, during, before, after, over, from, following, by, till, until, towards, for, throughout, upon, since, pending, all through, prior to
2) 引导地点状语的介词:
in, at, across, to, down, under, near, between, over, from, into, through, onto, off, outside, out of, inside, within, beside, behind, below, among, beyond, against, around, before, up, ahead of, via, in front of, under, along, past, opposite, above, next to
3) 引导其他短语的介词:
by, with, about, except, like, of, according to, instead of, without, in, due to, because of, along with, as for, in spite of, on account of owing to, on behalf of, against, apart from, for, failing, plus, including, in regard to, with regard to
二、介词短语在句子中的作用
1.用作状语
介词短语表示时间、地点、方式和原因等。如:
Class begins at half past seven. (时间) 7时半开始上课。
His parents work on a farm. (地点) 他父母在农场工作。
She came here by train. (方式) 她乘火车来这里。
You don’t have to worry about that. (原因) 你不必为那件事担心。
2. 用作定语
作定语用的介词短语应放在所修饰的名词之后。如:
The book on the desk is very interesting. 书桌上的那本书很有趣。
The young man from Guilin is my uncle.  从桂林来的那位年轻人是我叔叔。
We visited the museum in the centre of the city. 我们参观了市中心的博物馆。
3. 用作表语
在系动词后的介词短语用作表语。如:
My father was in the army two years ago.  两年前我父亲在部队。
This book will be of great use to you.  这本书对你会有很大的用处。
三、常用介词的用法
英语介词并不很多,但其用法灵活多样。掌握常用介词的用法及常见的介词搭配,是学习英语的重点和难点。
1.简单介词和复合介词
1)about(关于,大约):a book about animals 一本关于动物的书。
2)above(在……上面):a map above the blackboard 黑板上方的一张地图,above all 首要的是。
3)across(穿过,跨过):a bridge across the river 跨过河的一座桥
4)after(在……之后):after breakfast 早饭后,after school 放学后,after class 课后
5)against(反对):play against them 跟他们比赛。
6)along(沿着):plant trees along the lake 沿着湖边植树。
7)among(在……之中):among the workers 在工人们中间,among the trees 在树丛中。
8)at(在):at home在家,at school 在学校,at work 在工作。
9)before(在……之前):before class 课前,before lunch 午饭前
10)behind(在……后面):behind the house 在房子后面,behind the door 在门后。
11)near(在……附近):near the river 在河边,stand near the door 站在门旁。
12) into(在……里):come into the classroom 进入教室,fall into the water 掉进水里
13)in(在……内,用,戴):in English 用英语,in a hat 戴帽子,in front of 在……前面,in line 排成一行,in the end 最后,in the open air 在野外,in a minute立刻,in surprise 惊奇地,in time及时,in trouble 处在困难中。
14)from(从):from Monday to Friday 从星期一到星期五,from now on 从今以后。
15)for (为,给):buy some food for lunch 买些午餐的食物,for example 例如,for long 长久。
16) except(除……之外):everyone except Lin Tao 除林涛之外的每个人,every day except Sunday 除星期天之外的每天。
17)by(乘,在,由,到):by plane 乘飞机,by the way顺便说,by then 到那时,by the window 在窗边。

18) between(在两者之间):between the two children 在两个孩子之间,between A and B 在A 和B之间。
19)beside(在……旁边):sit beside her 坐在她身边,beside the river 在河边。
20)below(在……以下):below zero 零度以下。
21)of(……的):the name of the bird 鸟的名字,a map of China一幅中国地图。
22)off(离开):take off one’s clothes 脱掉衣服,go off 走开,turn off 关掉,get off the bus 下公共汽车。
23)with ( 用,和,带着):go to school with a bag带书包上学,see with one’s eyes 用眼睛看,with one’s help 在某人的帮助下,with pleasure 高兴。
24)without(没有):go out without a coat 没穿上衣服就走出去。
25)until=till (直到……为止):stay in bed until tomorrow 卧床直到明天,wait until ten o’ clock 等到10点钟为止。
26)under(在……下面):under the desk 在书桌下,under the tree 在树下
27)to(给、对、到、往):go to school 上学,give a kite to me 把风筝给我,from here to the park 从这里到公园。
28)through(通过,穿过):walk through the gate 走过大门。
29)since (自从):since1995 自从1995年以来。
30)round=around(在……周围):sit round the table 围着桌子坐,round the world 遍及全世界。
31)over( 超过,多于):over two years 两年多
32)outside (在……之外):outside of gate 在大门外。
33)on(在、关于):on one’s way home 回家路上, on duty 值日,on foot 步行,on top of 在……上面。on the earth 在地球上。
四、常见介词搭配
英语许多动词、形容词和名词都与特定的介词搭配,我们必须熟悉这些搭配关系。
1.动词与介词(或副词)的搭配
add…to  加到……上                   agree with  同意(某人)
arrive at(in) 到达                       ask for 询问
begin…with 从……开始                 believe in 相信
break into  闯入                        break off  打断
break out  爆发                        bring down  降低
bring in  引进                         bring up  教育,培养
build up  建起                         burn down 烧光
call back  回电话                      call for  要求约请
call in  召来                          call on 拜访 访问
care for 喜欢                          carry on  继续开展
carry out 实行开展                     check out 查明 结帐
clear up 整理,收拾                    come about 发生,产生
come across  (偶然)遇见              come out  出来
come to 共计 达到                     compare…with  与……比较
compare to  比作                       cut off  切断 
date from  始于                        depend on  依靠
devote to  献于                        die out  灭亡
divide up  分配                        dream of  梦想
fall off  下降                          fall over  跌倒
feed on  以……为食                   get down to  专心于
get through  通过                      give in  让步,屈服
give out  分发                         give up  放弃 
go abroad  出国                       go against  反对
go on with  继续                      go through  浏览
grow up 生长                         hand down   传下来
hear about 听说                       hold out  伸出
join up  连接起来                     keep off  让开,不接近
keep on  继续                        lead to  导致
live on  靠……为生                   look down upon  看不起
look forward to 盼望                   look into  调查
look out  当心                        look(a) round 仔细查看
set off  动身                          set up  建立
show off 炫耀                         shut up  住口
speed up  加速                        stand for  代表,象征
stick to  坚持                         suffer from  遭受
talk of  谈论                          think of  考虑,想起
try out  试验                          turn down  调低
turn off  关掉                         worry about  担心
2.介词成语
1)英语中有大量成语由介词构成,单是一些常用介词就可构成大量成语:
at:
at a stretch  一连,连续地                at a time  一次,每次
at ease  稍息,安心                     at first sight  一见(钟情)
at first  最初,开始时                   at heart  在内心
at home  在家,随便                    at last   最后
at least  至少                           at length 最后,详细地
at most  至多                           at once 立即,同时
at peace(war) 处于和平(战争)状态       at play(work) 在玩耍(工作)
at present 现在,目前                    at random 随意地,胡乱地
at the risk of 冒…的风险                  at the same time (与此)同时
at the start  一开头                       at the time 此刻,这时
at times  有时候                         at will  任意地
by:
by accident  偶然                       by air  航空
by all means  想一切办法                by bus (plane, etc) 坐巴士(飞机等)
by chance 偶然                         by cheque  用支票
by choice 出于自愿                     by daylight  在大白天
by day(night) 白天(夜间)              by force 靠武力
by mistake 错误地,误把…              by turns  轮流
by surprise  突然,出其不意             by the way  顺便说一句
in:
in a sense 从某种意义上说               in addition(to) 此外(除…之外)
in advance  事前                       in all  总共
in any case (event) 不管怎样,反正        in brief 简而言之
in case  要是,如果                    in case of 在…情况下
in comparison  比较起来                in danger  处于危险中
in debt  负债                          in demand 有需求
in detail  详细地                       in fact   实际上
in general  一般说来                    in one’s opinion  在(某人)看来
in order to (that) 以便,为了              in other words  换句话说
in part(s) 部分地                       in person  亲自
in practice  实际上                     in public(private) 公开(私下)地
in regard to  关于                      in short  总之
in the end  最后                        in the middle of  在…中间
in time  及时地,经过一段时间          in vain  白白地,没有结果
on:
on account of  由于                     on behalf of 代表(某人)
on board  在船(飞机)上               on condition 在…条件下
on duty 值班                           on fire  着火
on foot 步行                           on guard 有警惕,值班
on hand 在身边                        on holiday 在休假
on purpose 故意地                      on sale 在出售
on strike  罢工                         on the contrary  相反
on the way  在路上                     on time 准时
on the top of   在…上面                  on the run  正在逃窜
out of:
out of action  失灵                       out of breath  气喘吁吁
out of control  失去控制                  out of danger  脱离危险
out of doors   在户外                     out of fashion  不时新
out of hand  失去控制                    out of order   坏了
out of reach  无法得到(拿到)              out of sight  看不见
out of temper  发脾气                    out of question  不可能
out of touch(with)  和…失去联系          out of tune  走调
out of use  不再使用                     out of work  失业
2)有些介词夹在名词之间构成成语:
day after day  日复一日地                year after year  年复一年
one after another  一个接一个地           one by one 一个接一个
little by little   一点一点地               side by side  并肩
step by step  一步步地                   face to face  面对面
arm in arm  手挽手地                    hand in hand  手牵手地
day to day  日常的                      day by day   一天一天地
day before yesterday  前天                day after tomorrow   后天
heart to heart  互相交心的               

3)还有一些成语包含两个介词:
from beginning to end  从头至尾           from bad to worse  越来越糟
from time to time   不时地                from head to foot  浑身
from morning to night 从早到晚            from start to finish  从头至尾
from door to door  挨门挨户地             from place to place  到各地
from generation to generation  一代一代地   from cover to cover  (书面) 全部地,从头至尾
4)此外,“be+形容词+介词”也是一类成语:
be found of  喜欢                       be full of  充满
be interested in  对…有兴趣              be keen on  热衷于
be confident in  对…有信心              be short of  缺乏
be sick of  厌恶                        be proud of  对…感到骄傲
be loyal to  对…忠诚                    be ashamed of  为…感到羞耻
be worried about  为…担心               be aware of  意识到
be busy with 忙于(某事)               be different from 和…不同
be famous for  因…而出名

强化练习题
1.  Some areas, _______ their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.
A but for    B in spite of    C due to    D with regard to
2. Visitors are asked to comply ______ the regulations.
A at    B in    C with    D on
3.  He ______ so much work that he couldn’t really do it efficiently.  
A put on    B took on    C brought on    D turned on
4. In order to save time, I ______ my shopping to once a week.
A cut off    B cut out    C cut up    D cut down
5. The idea has ______ that science cannot be wrong.
A piled up    B picked up    C grown up    D put up
6. He did everything he could to prevent if from ______ into fighting.
A breaking off    B breaking up    C breaking out    D breaking of
7. The construction of the new building will cost ______ 1,000,000 dollars, and it’s not easy to
get so much money.
A at last    B at most    C at least    D at large
8. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the light happened to ____.
A. be put up     B. give in      C. be turned on       D. go out
9. Every morning she would give him breakfast____ bed and bring him the papers to read.
A. to           B. at           C. in               D. by
10. Your performance in the driving test didn’t teach the required standard, ____, you failed.
A. in the end     B. after all        C. in other words       D. at the same time
11. Why don’t they build a new road that goes____ the town?
A. to           B. through         C. over           D. round
12. ____ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.
A. As          B. For              C. With           D. Through
13. _____ this book and tell me what you think of it.
A. Look through       B. Look on        C. Look into         D. Look up
14. The doctor will be free ____.
A. 10 minutes later      B. after 10 minutes     
C. in 10 minutes       D. 10 minutes after
15. Did you have trouble ____ the post office?
A. to have found              B. with finding
C. to find                    D. in finding
16. If you keep on, you’ll succeed_____.
A. in time         B. at one time          C. at the same time        D. on time
17. We offered him out congratulations_____ his passing the college entrance exams.
A. at            B. on              C. for            D. of
18. ----How long has this bookshop been in business?
A. After          B. In             C. From         D. Since
19. The train leaves at 6:oo pm. So I have to be at the station____5:40 pm at the latest.
A. until           B. after           C. by            D. around
20. Does John know any other foreign language _____ French?
A. except         B. but            C. besides          D. beside
答案与解析(部分)
1---7(略)
8. 答案是D。A和B与句意完全不符,put up 意为 “举起”,give in 意为 “让步”。C项意为“开灯”,与该句意思相反。D项意为 stop burning or shining, 正适合句意。
9. 答案是C。本题考查bed 一词与什么介词搭配。“在床上”应上in bed。
10. 答案是C。本题考查对几个介词短语的辨析。A项意为 最后,B项意为 毕竟,D项意为 同时,这三项均不符合句意。C项意为 换言之正合题意。
11. 答案是D. 本题考查对这几个介词的辨析。A和C明显不符合题意。through通常是指通过某个空间,如go through a tunnel (通过隧道),因此C项也不合题意 。
12. 答案是C. with 可表示原因,意为“因”、“由于”。
13. 答案是A. Look on 意为“旁观”,look into 意为“调查”,look up 意为 “抬头看”,这几个选项均不符合题意。
14. 答案是C。本题考查对表示时间的介词短语的掌握。in 与一段时间连用表示“…….之内”或“……之后”。 after与一段时间连用通常用于过去时。
15. 答案是D 如果能掌握have trouble in doing something 这一句型,就知道答案了。
16. 答案是A. 本题考查对介词短语的辨析能力。in time 除了意为“及时”外,还可为“迟早”、“总有一天”,相当于sooner or later/someday.
17. 答案是B. 本题考查对介词与名词搭配的掌握。表示“向某人祝贺谋事”、常用的句型是offer somebody congratulations on something or doing something。
18. 答案是D。问句使用现在完成时,只有since 才能与之搭配。
19. 答案是C.
20. 答案是C. 本题考查对习惯用语的掌握,help oneself to 是固定搭配。

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